Signatories

Details for ISEG

Participant Status

Basic

Type of Organization

Business School

Type of Education

Undergraduate, Post Graduate, Doctoral, Executive

Institution is part of

Universidade Lisboa

Location

Lisboa, Portugal

Website

http://www.iseg.ulisboa.pt

Sign Up Date to PRME

24 Jul 2014

Current Sharing Information on Progress Report Submission

09 Dec 2016

Sharing Information on Progress (2016)

PRME | Principles for Responsible Management Education REPORT 2014-2015 (ISEG) - View Report

Period Covered: Jan 2014 to Dec 2015

ISEG has followed a strategy of fruitful interaction with the community, both in terms of research and teaching. Ethical issues and the problematic of sustainability are taught and discussed in our programs, and the PRME Principles are solidly represented in our mission. Over the past few years, ISEG has been working hard to incorporate these principles in its activity. The report presents detail accounts of our activities, achievements and objectives from the last few years and for the future.

Achievements Curriculum Integration in the Field of Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability

* We have several courses in corporate responsibility in undergraduate and graduate levels (Bachelor, MBA);

* We have a Post graduate Program in Sustainability Management - (http://www.idefe.pt/programas/pos-graduacoes/estrategia-empreendedorismo/gestao-da-sustentabilidade/)


ISEG maintains a strong commitment to responsible education in management and research and to developing graduates and postgraduates who are committed to ethical principles and to carrying out active citizenship.
For more than a century ISEG has educated generations of leaders, managers and specialists who have developed their skills in business and economic decision making, some of whom served in governments and as board members in leading companies. This commitment to educating people who have strong ethical principles, with the capacity to contribute to the socio-economic development of society is a common denominator of ISEG’s mission during its history, resulting in one of the most distinctive features of its cultural makeup.

1. Values and Principles
The commitment to responsible education in management and research and to developing graduates and postgraduates who are committed to ethical principles, constitutes one of the cornerstones of ISEG’s activity, which is incorporated in the current mission statement and values. ISEG’s mission is to contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge in the areas of economics and management and supporting fields, to aid in the social and economic development of the country and to contribute to its international affirmation, by educating, training and preparing the required human resources, by pursuing the path of scientific research, by providing services to the community and by facilitating the scientific and cultural exchange of students, academic staff and researchers. By ensuring the accomplishment of its mission, ISEG promotes a pluralistic approach to teaching and research, encourages the development of synergies between scientific areas, pursues a culture of leadership, innovation and entrepreneurship, and develops common activities with other national, foreign and international universities and research entities, based upon ethical principles and socially responsible values.
ISEG’s values are important guidelines that underpin all the university’s activities and decisions. These values are formally recorded and are communicated not only internally, but also to its closest partners and to the community as a whole. This commitment to providing education and research, which is governed by high ethical standards, is reflected in its Mission Statement and Values, which are presented below:
• Integrity - ISEG takes the student and staff codes of ethics very seriously. Intellectual honesty and copyright are valued and protected, fraud and plagiarism are prevented, and any proven cases are strongly punished.
• Individual Freedom - ISEG promotes freedom of thought, speech, teaching, learning, and academic tutoring. ISEG promotes academic diversity and its academic staff belong to different schools of thought. This enhances the possibility of critical thinking by students.
• Search for Excellence - At ISEG, merit and effort are essential ingredients for excellence in education and research, and incentives are used to promote these values.
• Solidarity - ISEG acknowledges that not all students share the same ability to master the Portuguese language, or have the same financial security or other characteristics that may contribute to success. Equal opportunity for all is valued, even if this results in some form of positive discrimination for those who are at a disadvantage with regard to the learning process.
• Cooperation and Reciprocity - Cooperation within the university (departments, research centres and between academic staff) is a key to success. Reciprocal behaviour contributes to the evolution of cooperation, whereas myopic competition would destroy the social capital which is so highly valued at ISEG.
• Efficiency and Good Governance – The efficient use of scarce resources is valued at ISEG. Additionally, we also give great importance to the governing bodies (The Dean’s Office, the University Board, the Scientific and Pedagogic Committees and Faculty Departments), which are characterised by a clear segregation of powers and responsibilities, yet they jointly guarantee good governance through working together in a structured fashion.

2. Integration in Curricula and in Academic Activities
As a means of guaranteeing a strong ethical component and a continuous focus on active citezenship, ISEG established various Learning Objectives (LO), which are directly related to its ethical commitment and are transversally incorporated in the curricular plans of ISEG degrees (1st Cycle, 2nd Cycle and 3rd Cycle). It is important to mention that 30% of the Masters degrees include a course unit which is on the specfic subject of ethics and social responsibility. Undergraduate degrees also include similar elective course units and some obligatory course units are centred on the same theme. In parallel, ISEG organises conferences, seminars and workshops, which aim to share case studies and the relevant experiences of companies and civil society organisations that promote social responsibility and sustainability.
From a strategic point of view, ISEG opted to reinforce the perspective of ethics, corporate responsibility and sustainability in all of its curricular plans, and it can be seen that these values are amply incorporate in the following Learning Objectives:-

1 – To reinforce ethical conscienceness and behaviour at both an individual and a professional level:-
a) Reinforce ethical consciousness and behaviour at both an individual and a professional level – This LO will be acheived through the discussion of ISEG’s Mission Statement and Values during lectures and through the possibilty for academic staff or students to present a proposal for alteration to this document. In this case, a formal declaration of intent will be prepared and signed by the students involved;
b) Knowledge of the rules and ethical professional conduct – In order that students may learn the codes of professional conduct, they will analyse the codes related to the core subjects of the Masters degrees (only applicable to the 3rd Cycle of Studies at ISEG);
c) To be conscious of the ethical implications of decision making – The most relevant theories will be debated during lectures, in order that students learn the most relevant ethical theories and are able to analyse the ethical implications of decision making;
d) For the particular case of academic integrity, students must read and sign a declaration of understanding of the “Disciplinary Rules and Regulations” and the “Code of Behaviour and Best Practice ” of ULisboa.

2 – Enable the incorporation of ethical behaviour in decision-making:-
a) Reinforce ethical consciousness in decision-making – Our students are able to use analytical techniques for the identification of the possible ethical implications of a situation and/or a decision. To this end, students analyse a case study and/or an ethical dilema, and they are then asked to identify the different underlying ethical perpectives and to analyse the conflicting interests;
b) Reinforce an ethical behaviour/attitude in decision-making – In the face of an ethical dilema, our students are able to equate the ethical implications of a decision and can propose fundamental solutions. For this purpose, a lecture is dedicated to the analysis of a case study and/or an ethical dilema, and they are then asked to present a proposal with justifiable, fundamented solutions;
c) A particular case: corruption – Our students are trained to identify cases of corruption and know how to act. To this end, they analyse the anti-corruption document (Global Compact) and then identify the challenges presented and the measures that must be taken in cases of corruption.

3 – Develop Social Responsibility and Sustainability:-
a) Individual and corporate responsibility in the face of the challenges of society – Students should be able to critically appraise the challenges that the planet is facing in the 21st century and individual responsibility, as well as that of companies/organisations. To achieve this, during lectures, analysis and debate is carried out of the social challenges facing humanity in terms of its sustainability (economic, social and environmental);
b) Strategies for sustainability – Our students know practices and initiatives designed to promote sustainability. For this purpose, analysis and debate is carried out regarding the initiatives and supportive organisational practices or barriers for sustainability;
c) A particular case: social responsibility practices at ISEG – In this context, students should be able to propose iniatives and solutions for sustainability at ISEG and for private businesses, public organisations and the tertiary sector.
Thus, ISEG graduates will understand the importance of ethical values in their professional lives; will be able to identify ethical dilemmas and will be able to apply their values when making decisions and when proposing solutions.

3. Academic Activities and Liaison with the Community

In this area, existing initiatives are reinforced and are organised more systematically, which will be done in three ways:- i) by stimulating voluntary work and community service, ii) by making students aware through their participation in conferences and seminars, and iii) by reinforcing ISEG’s social responsibility, in its role as an organisation dedicated to teaching and research. Outlined below are some of the activities that are in progress and/or are being developed:-
a) Voluntary service day – Reinforce existing voluntary activities and concentrate many of them into one dedicated day for voluntary service at ISEG;
b) Provide support to the community through ISEG Junior Business Consulting;
c) Create an internal improvement suggestions competition for students called “A Thousand Ideas for Sustainability”;
d) Participate in the “Award for Research in Social Responsibility” competition which is organised by Grace;
e) Promote the organisation of scientific conferences in the areas of Ethics, Social Responsibility and Sustainability;
f) The Alumni Solidarity programme – Ensure the continuity of this initiative and reinforce the scope of the current programme;
g) Implement environmental best practice at ISEG, by way of the analysis and assessment of environmental impact studies, through to more structured initiatives designed to reduce CO2 levels.

4. Partnerships and Dialogue with Stakeholders
This area involves the commitment to principles and the implementation of partnership agreements that are already negotiated or are in the process of being so:-
a) Proposal for adopting the PRME principles
b) Membership of the European Business Ethics Network (EBEN)
c) Membership of the Portuguese Social Responsibility Network - RSO.pt,
d) The participation in the Inter-Universities Project – organised by Grace – “O Grupo de Reflexão e Apoio à Cidadania Empresarial,
e) Continue the existing cooperation with WBCSD Portugal (BCSD) and enable new partnerships.

5. Established Commitment
In order to help gain a clear understanding of how the concept of ethics is incorporated in degree programmes, ISEG organized an internal survey to assess the degree to which “the student understands well the importance of ethical values in conducting his/her professional life, and is able to identify an ethical dilemma and make use of his/her values to defend a solution”. A summary of the replies is as follows:
a) 86.4% of academic staff replied that such an ethical perspective was present in the course unit that they teach, whereas 6.2% stated that it was not, and 7.4% replied that it was to some extent implicitly considered in the study programme.
b) Our academic staff share the opinion that the incorporation of the ethical perspective is essential, not only in terms of economics and finance, but also in terms of professional, social and environmental behaviour.
c) Several pedagogical means exist for incorporating this perspective in degree programmes. In some course units this perspective is explicitly present, such as Auditing, Accounting, Financial Calculus, Tax, Leadership and Entrepreneurship, Real Estate Management (RICS Accredited), Law, Organization and Study Methods, Sociology, and Business and Economic History. Some of these degrees recommend books on ethics and professionalism (for example, The Harvard Business Review and The Journal of Business Ethics) and others make use of oral presentations that make reference to historical examples, case studies and specific exercises where such issues are studied.
There is evidence that both the academic staff and students behave in an ethically correct manner. Amongst students this can been seen in the way that they approach their studies - with discipline and determination, in order to achieve their proposed goals, through mutual cooperation between students and by the respect for ethical principles when sitting an exam, or writing a paper (plagiarism and fraud). As for the academic staff, they are obliged to comply with such principles.
Most academic staff do not assess the ethical perspective in the degrees that they teach. Out of the 70 lecturers that answered this question, 44.3% said that the ethics perspective, although part of their lectures, was not evaluated in a continuous and systematic way. Those lecturers who answered positively, indicated the following methodologies of assessment: when lecturing for the degree; by placing specific questions in the final exam; through group study and presentations which are debated during lectures; specific exercises; continuous assessment of students and; by observing student behaviour during lectures;
d) Some lecturers declared that there is room for the introduction of such a perspective in course units and during their assessment procedures. This perspective could be incorporated by the following means:- the reformulation of course units in such a way as to include specific chapters on ethics and professionalism; specific sessions on ethics which are common to all programmes and are coordinated by a specialist in this field; specific exercises; and the recommendation of specific literature, followed by debate on the subject.
In conclusion, ISEG gives great importance to the ethical dimension of teaching and learning, in line with its Mission Statement, and in general, it incorporates best practice in this perspective in all degree programmes. To support this commitment, a more structured and formal approach is being developed to generalise norms of conduct and to reinforce the ethical perspective, corporate responsibility and sustainability throughout the university, as well as to incorporate value-driven initiatives in the student support plan and in the implementation of the learning goals in the programmes.

Achievements Research Development in the Field of Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability

Research activity at ISEG, which is very diverse, is characterised by the large number of study areas that are directly, or indirectly related to ethics, corporate social responsibility and sustainability. Just as an example, this can be seen in the following published papers:-

POPULATION AND AGEING
• Ageing and Poverty: how older Portuguese adults became less poor in the nineties. C. Farinha Rodrigues and I. Andrade. European Journal of Ageing 11, 285-292 (2014);
• A global optimisation approach based on adaptive populations. T. A. Silva, A. Loja, A. Carvalho, N. M. Maia, and J. I. Barbosa in Proc. of the 2nd ECCOMAS Thematic
International Conference on Numerical and Symbolic Computation: Developments and Applications (SYMCOMP 2015), UAlg, Faro, Portugal, (2015).
• VARELA, Odair B.; BARBOSA, Carlos Elias (2014), “Migration in the Cape Verde Islands. Legal and Policy Framework”, European Scientific Journal, Special Edition
(May), pp. 449-466;
• BARROS, C. P., Wanke, P. and Figueiredo, O. (2015). “Peasants’ Poverty and Inequality in Angola”. Social Indicators
• Lopes, J.C. e Albuquerque, P. C. (2014). “The characteristics and regional distribution of older workers in Portugal”. Revista Portuguesa de Estudos Regionais,
Vol. 35, 1º quadrimestre, pp. 39-57;
• Santos, M. J.; with Catarina, M. and Amaral, M. (2015). Empreender após os 50 anos. Um Estudo sobre Portugal. Lisboa: RH Editora, 142 págs.
• Lopes, J., Albuquerque, P. (2014) “The characteristics and regional distribution of older workers in Portugal”, Revista Portuguesa de Estudos Regionais, 35, 2014, 1.º
Quadrimestre, pp. 39-57;
• Santos, S. (2014) “The Social Accounting Matrix and the Socio-Demographic Matrix-Based Approaches for Studying the Socioeconomics of Ageing”, Theoretical
and Practical Research in Economic Fields, 1, July 2014. 57-63.

LOCAL DEVELOPMENT AND URBAN STUDIES
• Applications of solar mapping in the urban environment. T. Santos, N. Gomes, S. Freire, M. C. Brito, L. Silveira Santos and J. A. Tenedório. Applied Geography
51, 48-57 (2014);
• Urban Metabolism of Six Asian Cities. P. Ferrão, J. Fumega, N. Gomes, S. Niza, A. Pina and L. Silveira Santos. Asian Development Bank, (2014).
• BARROS, C.P., CHIVANGUE, Andes and SAMAGAIO, António (2014), “Urban dynamics in Maputo, Mozambique”. Cities 36 (2014) 74–82. Impact factor: 1.836;
• Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina and FRIAS, Sónia (04 December 2015), “Between the City Lights and the Shade of Exclusion: Post-War Accelerated Urban
Transformation of Luanda, Angola”, Urban Forum, June 2016, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 129-147. DOI: 10.1007/ s12132-015-9271-7.
• Serrano, Maria Manuel; Santos, Anabela and Neto, Paulo (2015). “Análise da eficácia, eficiência e valor acrescentado de políticas públicas place-based – uma
aplicação a territórios rurais”. Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural, Vol. 53, Supl. 1, pp. S033-S048;
• Coelho, M. (2015). “Co-management and Rural Sustainable Development: The Case of Tamera (South-Portugal)”, International Conference Meanings of the Rural (Between Social Representations, Consumptions and Rural Development Strategies), University of Aveiro, peer-reviewed.

THIRD SECTOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKS
• Human Capital, Social Capital and Organisational Performance. A. Felício, E. Couto and J. Caiado. Management Decision 52, 350-364 (2014).LOC
• Barbosa, Allan C.Q.; with VIEIRA, N. S. ; PARENTE, C. (2015). As abordagens do “Terceiro Setor”, da “Economia Social” e da “Economia Solidária” e suas vinculações
com a inovação social. IS Working Papers, 2ª série, N.º 12, p. 01-21, 2015. ISSN: 1647-9424.

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY
• Felício, J., Ivashkovskaya, I., Rodrigues, R., and Stepanova, A. (2014), “Corporate Governance and Performance in the Largest European Listed Banks
during the Financial Crisis”, Innovar, 24 (53), 83-98. doi: 10.15446/innovar.v24n53.43914.
• Proença, J. e Branco, M. (2014), “Corporate Social Responsibility - Practices and Motivations in a Peripheral Country: Two Portuguese Illustrative Cases”, Corporate Governance, 14 (2): 252-264. DOI 10.1108/ CG-07-2011-0052 (ISSN 1472-0701). http://www.emeraldinsight. com/doi/full/10.1108/CG-07-2011-0052
• SARMENTO, Eduardo e Loureiro, Sandra (2015), Exploring the perception of the millennial generation about corporate social responsibility in fashion luxury brands, TMS Algarve 2014 – Management Studies International Conference (26-29 November 2014)

Total: 12
• Santos, M. (2014), “Theoretical contributions towards rethinking Corporate Social Responsability”, Management Research: The Journal of the Ibero-american Academy of Management, Vol. 12, n. 3, pp. 288-307;
• Santos, Maria João; Seabra, Miguel; Jorge, Fátima; Costa, Alice (Editores) (2014), Responsabilidade Social na Governação, nas Empresas e nas Organizações não Empresariais: Do Diagnóstico à Acção, Coimbra, Almedina, pp. 75-85 (ISBN:978-972-40-5328-8);
• Casaca, Sara Falcão (2015). “Natalidade: a urgência do compromisso do mundo empresarial”, Actas da Conferência A(s) Problemática(s) da Natalidade em
Portugal: uma questão social, económica e política, Lisboa, Associação para o Planeamento da Família, ICS/Observatório das Famílias e das Políticas de Família e Institute of Public Policies;
• Santos, Maria João; Breda, Ana Carolina (2014), “Gestão ética através de programas de compliance”, in “Responsabilidade Social na Governação, nas Empresas e nas Organizações não Empresariais: Do Diagnóstico à Acção”, Coimbra, Almedina, pp. 75-85 (ISBN:978-972-40-5328-8).

SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT
• Issa, T. and Isaias, P. (2015). “Sustainable Design HCI, Usability and Environmental Concerns”. New York: Springer. ISBN: 9781447167525 – DOI: 10.1007/9781447167532;
• Gonçalves, H., Lourenço, T. and Silva G. (2015) “Green buying behavior and the theory of consumption values: A fuzzyset approach”, Journal of Business Research, 69 (4): 1484-1481. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.129.
• MENDONÇA, António, (co-author with Fonseca, M. and Passos, J.). “Outward FDI and Sustainable Trade Balance Path: Evidence from the Portuguese Economy,
1996-2011”, XII International Colloquium “Visions of Sustainable Development: Theory and Action”, University of Florida, Levin College of Law, Universidade
de Brasília, World Academy of Art and Science, Location: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, from the 20 to 22 May, 2015.
• Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Chaves, Rosana Silva; Ramos Silva, Joaquim; Pereira, Maurício Fernandes (2014). “Grow or Grow: Determinant factors for continuous
and sustainable growth, the UNIMED-BH”. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences, Vol. 3, n. 8, pp. 1-17;
• Loureiro, S.M.C., Bilro, R.G. and Koo, DongMo (2015). Committing Consumers to Sustainability: Portugal and South Korea Outlooks. In Ivo Pereira (ed.). Conference
book of proceedings of the 4th (MESD) International Conference on Multinational Enterprises and Sustainable Development (track: Technology and sustainability),
13-15 of December, Lisbon, Portugal;
• Santos, M. and Jacques, C. (2015). Global Value Chains and Sustainable Development: linking corporate social responsibility and decent work research. In the 4th International Conference on Multinational Enterprises and Sustainable Development (MESD), ISCTE/ IUL, 13-15/12/2015.

NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
• FRIAS, Sónia (2014), “De Visita aos San¡ no Deserto do Kalahari: notas sobre subsistência e ecologia social”, in CASANOVA, Catarina e FRIAS, Sónia
(coords.), “Memória: Número Especial Dedicado à Antropologia do Ambiente”, col. MEMÓRIAS, (16), Lisboa, Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa, 2014, ISBN
978-989-96308-6-4;
• GENTILI, Davide. O acesso à água e ao saneamento nos países em desenvolvimento - a União Europeia, as ONGDs e o caso de Bafatá na Guiné-Bissau, CEsA, Lisboa, Setembro/2015
• Bento, S., Varanda, M., Teixeira, E., Cupeto, C., Pio, C., Neto, S. and Stigter, T. (2014). Governação da água: uma parceria Estado-Sociedade (Relatório Participation Water Net, 2014 - www.participationwater.net);
• Coelho, M., Filipe, J. and Ferreira, M. (2014), “The benefits of cooperation - a study for sardine stocks recover in Peniche (Portugal)”, Journal of Economics and
Engineering, Vol. 5 (1), pp. 23-30;
• Varanda, M.; with Stigter, T., Bento, S. Nunes, J. P., Hugman, R. (2015). Combined Assessment of Climate Change and Socio-Economic Development as Drivers of Freshwater Availability in the South of Portugal, Water Resources Management, Springer, pp. 1-20. ISSN: 0920-4741 (Print) 1573-1650 (Online).
• Barros, C., Gil-Alana, L., Wanke, P. (2014) “Ethanol consumption in Brazil: Empirical facts based on persistence, seasonality and breaks”, Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 63, April 2014, Pages 313–320.

WELFARE STUDIES AND SOCIAL POLICY
ANALYSIS
• Ferreira, J.M. Carvalho and Ronconi, Luciana (2014), “A gestão pública da economia social em Portugal”, in Responsabilidade Social, Coimbra, Almedina, pp.
235-249;
• Graça, João Carlos and Rita Gomes Correia (2015). “Welfare State”, in the SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society, Frederick F. Wherry and Juliet Schor
(Edit.), Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Vol 4, pp. 1686-1690. ISBN: 9781452226439. Peer reviewed.
• Centeno, M., Novo, A. (2014) “Do Low-Wage Workers React Less to Longer Unemployment Benefits? Quasi-Experimental Evidence”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 76(2), April 2014, 185-207;
• Garcia, M.T. (2014) “An Appraisal of Public Pension Reserve Funds Management - Evidence from Portugal”, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(3),
333-341;
• Centeno, M. e Novo, A. (2015) “Mercado de Trabalho: Actores e Políticas para o Século XXI”, in ed.V. Soromenho- Marques and P. Trigo Pereira (Eds), “Afirmar
o Futuro Políticas Públicas para Portugal”, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Volume II.

OTHERS
• School effectiveness research findings in Portuguese- speaking countries: Brazil and Portugal. M. E. Ferrão. Educational Research for Policy and Practice
13, 3-24 (2014).
• RAMOS SILVA, Joaquim e SOUSA GALITO, Maria (2014), “China’s approach to economic diplomacy and human rights”, International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 2(1/2), pp. 23-41;
• SANGREMAN, Carlos; Martins, Luísa (2015), “Voluntary Society: Motivation and Characteristics of Portuguese”, International Journal of Business, Humanities
and Technology, Vol. 5 No. 5, Center for Promoting Ideas (CPI), Los Angeles, USA;
• WIESER, Doris (2015): “Masculinidad y violencia de género en la novela negrocriminal nicaragüense”. In: Badebec, v. 4, n. 8, 205-232.
• Casaca, Sara Falcão (2014). Report on Portugal - Exchange of Good Practices on Gender Equality - Female Entrepreneurship, European Commission;
• Verdasca, A. (2014). “Assédio moral no trabalho: uma realidade contemporânea”, in Neto, E.V., A., J. and Arezes, P. Edições. Civery Publishing, Várzea da Rainha Impressoras, SA. ISBN: 978-989-97762-9-6;
• Coelho, M., Filipe, J. and Ferreira, M. (2014), “Corruption and political risks in Latin America countries. A general view.”, Statistical Review, Vol. 8, n. 1-2, pp.
83-96.
• Pina, A., Boris, C. and Goujard, A. (2014) “Reconciling fiscal consolidation with growth and equity”, OECD Journal: Economic Studies, Vol. 2013/1. 7-89;
• Lopes, J.C., Graça, J. C., Correia, R. (2015) “Effects of economic education on social and political values, beliefs and attitudes: Results from a survey in Portugal”. Proceeding Economics and Finance Journal, 30 (1), 468-475.

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